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In recent years, the popularization application area of sweet corn has gradually expanded, the economic benefits are more considerable. In order to promote the production of sweet corn make great progress, the wholesale quick-frozen corn manufacturers comprehensively analyzed the cultivation practice for several years, put forward the cultivation technical points of the raw material of quick-frozen sweet corn, sweet corn, for reference.
1. Selected varieties
The following four principles should be paid attention to in the selection of varieties: first, considering the local ecological conditions, selecting the suitable varieties with compact plant type, high yield multi resistance; secondly, if processing into canned products, the ordinary sweet corn can be selected; thirdly, if the fresh fruit ears are listed on the market, the super sweet corn varieties should be selected; fourthly, the early, middle late maturing varieties should be cultivated together listed successively. In recent years, sweet corn varieties cultivated locally include tianrumi 8, Jingtian 3, Jingtian 8, Tiantian, etc.
2. Isolation control
If sweet corn other types of corn cross pollination, the sweetness will be greatly reduced, thus reducing even losing the actual value of sweet corn. Therefore, isolation measures should be taken to ensure the purity of quality. In production, there are mainly two kinds of isolation measures, namely, space isolation time isolation. Spatial isolation means that the distance between sweet corn other types of maize should be more than 400m; temporal isolation means that the sowing date of sweet corn other types of maize should be one month different.
The sowing date of spring maize mainly depends on the temperature, which should be started when the soil layer of 5-10 cm reaches 10-12 ℃, the sowing time is the last ten days of March to the first ten days of April. Summer maize should be planted as early as possible after harvesting, should be sown the middle of May to the middle of June. The earlier the sowing, the higher the yield.
4. Soil preparation precision sowing
If the conditions permit, try to choose the field with higher fertility level for planting, at the same time, make the soil smooth loose. Because the sweet corn, especially the super sweet corn, has less starch content, thin grains, low germination rate weak top soil force, the sweet corn should be sown shallowly, the sowing depth should exceed 4cm, the super sweet corn should exceed 3cm. At the same time, the special fertilizer for large grain corn can be applied with 3-4 grains per hole 4-8kg per mu.
5. Reasonable close planting
If the planting density of sweet corn is too high, the ears produced are conducive to meet the standard of commodity requirements; if the planting density is too small, the yield per unit area will decrease, which is conducive to increasing production income. The planting density of sweet corn is generally 3500-4000 plants per mu. In the aspect of inter seedling determination, the method of 2-3 times thinning can be used to remove weak strong seedlings, to leave even uniform seedlings, to reserve balanced growth double plants at one end both ends in the absence of seedlings. In the period of 3-4 leaves, the seedlings were kept about 1.3 times of the number of ears per mu. The seedlings were fixed at the stage of 5-6 leaves, the weak plants that could be heading were removed in time at the tasseling silking stage. In addition, the tillering characteristics of sweet corn are good, the tillers can form ears. In order to ensure the quality of ear, the extra tillers should be removed.
6. Fertilizer water management
Under the target yield of 400-500kg per mu, the amount of fertilizer application is about 17-18kg of pure nitrogen, 4-5kg of phosphorus pentoxide 4-5kg of potassium oxide. The base fertilizer accounts for about 60% of the total fertilizer amount, the top dressing fertilizer accounts for about 40% of the total fertilizer amount. The top dressing fertilizer is mainly jointing fertilizer ear fertilizer. In general, the field with sufficient basal seed fertilizer high yield level usually adopts the topdressing method of "light before heavy after", that is, light application of jointing fertilizer heavy application of ear fertilizer, the ratio of the two is 4:6; for the field with insufficient base seed fertilizer poor seedling condition, the topdressing method of "heavy before but light after" is adopted, that is, the ratio of fertilizer application amount is 6:4.
Improve the ditch system, so that drought can irrigate, waterlogging can discharge, drought flood to ensure high yield. When the soil moisture content is lower than the lower limit of the appropriate water content, irrigation should be carried out. Generally, there are four times of irrigation in the growth period of sweet corn, namely, jointing stage, bell mouth stage, tasseling stage filling stage. When waterlogging occurs, it is necessary to do a good job of drainage waterlogging reduction to ensure the normal growth development of sweet corn.
7. Pest control
Sweet corn is sweeter than ordinary corn, which is easy to cause harm of corn borer, aphid other pests, resulting in the decline of the quality of fruit ear. Therefore, we should strengthen prevention control. Other aspects should also adhere to the principle of "giving priority to agricultural control, physical control biological control, supplemented by chemical control", with prevention first comprehensive prevention control.
8. Timely harvesting
If the sweet corn is harvested earlier, the content of sugar in the kernel is too small, the sugar content is low, the flavor is poor; if the sweet corn is harvested late, the sugar in the kernel is converted into starch, the peel becomes thicker, the residue in the mouth is more, so the special flavor of sweet corn is lost, so it should be harvested in time. When determining the harvest time, we can determine whether to harvest by observing the changes of silk, pinching the tender seeds with fingers tasting the sweetness. The harvest time is generally 22-30 days after silking.